Herbs on the Hill - Handmade, Naturally

Whats in a Cosmetic?

and What do all the Terms Mean?

Technical language can over-complicate and confuse those who are not using the terms daily. This is why with the help of  the CTPA, we are working hard to provide explanations of cosmetic ingredients and terms used to explain how, they work in easy-to-understand language.

If you have a suggestion for a topic that you would like to see included please contact us.


Absorption of chemicals
Cosmetic products are carefully formulated to ensure ingredients are delivered to the appropriate site on the skin or hair. The skin is an effective barrier against penetration which is why even today most medicines have to be swallowed or injected and very few can be absorbed through the skin from topical patches.
Of course some substances do penetrate the skin or may be ingested (from oral care and lip products) but these are readily metabolised and harmlessly excreted. They do not accumulate within the body to reach unsafe levels.
The ability of a substance to enter through the skin is a complex thing and is down to the characteristics of each individual substance, such as its ability to be soluble in lipids and its size (molecular weight). Just as our weight is measured by the unit 'kilograms', the 'weight' or 'size' of each individual unit of a substance (molecule) is estimated in the unit 'Daltons'. You may sometimes come across a reference to the 'Dalton rule'. This is a 'rule of thumb' and says that substances above about 500 Daltons in size will not easily pass through the skin; substances below about 500 Daltons will find it easier, but only if they have a low electrical charge and are neither very soluble in lipids nor water. This rule applies to undamaged skin; broken skin (cuts, grazes, inflammed areas) allows many substances to gain access to the body which would not normally be able to pass through the skin.
The safety assessment required for each cosmetic product before it is placed on the market takes into account any possibility of skin penetration, including as necessary any use on damaged skin, to ensure there can be no harm caused to the consumer.

Advertising Standards Authority (ASA)
In the UK advertised claims are subject to close scrutiny by watchdog organisations; broadcast advertisements must be pre-cleared by Clearcast and both broadcast and print advertisements are scrutinised by the Advertising Standards Authority. These organisations require robust scientific evidence to substantiate claims being made.
The Advertising Standards Authority is the independent body set up by the advertising industry to police the rules laid down in the advertising codes. The ASA is committed to protecting consumers and creating a level playing field for advertisers.  To find out more visit: www.asa.org.uk

Top tips for using aerosols safely
Below are some top tips for using aerosols safely. Further tips on using aerosols safely have been produced by the British Aerosol Manufacturers' Association (BAMA) and the Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents.

  • Always read the instructions and precautions and make sure you understand them completely.
  • Always use aerosols in a well ventilated area. If using an aerosol in a confined space, open windows and doors to provide ventilation.
  • Aerosols are pressurised containers. Do not pierce or burn aerosols. Store them away from sunlight and heat.
  • Aerosols are extremely flammable. Avoid spraying aerosols near naked flames and potential sources of ignition (e.g. cigarettes, pilot lights).
  • Ensure aerosols are stored out of reach of children.
  • Aerosols should only be used in short bursts unless the instructions state otherwise. Deliberate inhalation of solvents found in everyday household products, including aerosols, can be harmful or fatal. Aerosols are labelled with the SACKI warning "Solvent Abuse Can Kill Instantly" as recommended by the British Aerosol Manufacturers' Association. This is designed to be a general warning about the risks of solvent abuse. Advice and resources on substance abuse are available from Re-Solv: the national charity dedicated to volatile substance abuse.

Alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs)
Found in fruit such as grapes and lemons, as well as in sugar cane and milk. Often known as fruit acids, they are used at low concentrations to gently speed up the skin’s normal exfoliation process. The result is a shedding of dry surface skin cells and an improved appearance and skin feel. At concentrations higher than used in cosmetic products, irritation and peeling can occur.

Aluminium in antiperspirants
Antiperspirants contain ingredients called aluminium salts (sometimes referred to as aluminium/zirconium salts) that dissolve in sweat and leave a thin coating of gel over the sweat glands. This coating reduces the amount of sweat on the skin for a number of hours after the antiperspirant is applied. Alum, a salt of aluminium, is the crystal widely used in “natural” deodorants/antiperspirants and works along similar lines.
Aluminium is the third most naturally abundant element in the environment, found in food, water and pharmaceuticals as well as a wide range of consumer products. There is no safety data that suggests that aluminium presents a health threat when included in antiperspirants.
Although there is no evidence to prove it, some have questioned whether antiperspirants could be linked in some way to breast cancer. Why? The answer is that several studies have demonstrated a negligible potential for aluminium salts to penetrate into (but not through) the skin. However, if a small amount were absorbed from antiperspirant, this would be tiny in comparison to the amounts we consume in the foods we eat daily. After all, antiperspirants are designed to work by staying on the surface of the skin, so the products would not work if a significant amount of the active ingredient was absorbed into the skin itself.
A number of leading cancer research organisations support this view, stating there is no plausible biological mechanism by which antiperspirants could cause breast cancer. Indeed, in the past, national cancer charities and other authorities (including Breakthrough Breast Cancer and Cancer Research UK) have seen false allegations as diverting attention away from taking action on those factors known to be associated with a risk of breast cancer, such as smoking and poor diet.

  • Breakthrough Breast Cancer has produced a helpful factsheet on this issue.
  • In 2008 a panel of leading clinical oncologists concluded that there is no scientific evidence that deodorants or antiperspirants cause cancer. Read more about this research.

It has also been suggested that aluminium may be able to mimic oestrogen. The strength of any such effect would be extremely low and only detectable under experimental conditions that cannot apply to real life, and there is no evidence that this can harm human health. Many substances have the ability to mimic oestrogen – and these are found at much higher concentrations in the foods we eat. In practice, just because something has the potential to mimic a hormone (in this case oestrogen), it does not mean that it can cause harm to human health. Remember, aluminium is the third most common element in the earth’s crust and most of what we absorb comes from food and drink.

Aluminium and Alzheimer's disease
Some researchers have speculated that there could be a link between aluminium and Alzheimer’s disease; however, there is no proof that such a relationship exists. There has been a lot of research into this area over the past 40 years. In 1997, the World Health Organisation said that it had found no evidence that aluminium was a health risk for healthy people who were not in contact with aluminium because of their jobs, and there was no evidence that aluminium was a primary cause of Alzheimer's disease. Also, epidemiological studies show no unusual incidence of Alzheimer’s disease in persons working in aluminium mines or smelters where they could be expected to inhale the substance in large amounts.
The overwhelming medical and scientific opinion is that the current findings do not convincingly demonstrate a causal relationship between aluminium and Alzheimer's disease.
For more information please see the Alzheimer's Society website.

Animal testing
Cosmetic products used daily by consumers are NOT tested on animals
Animal testing of both cosmetic products and their ingredients has not taken place in the UK since 1997 (a voluntary industry initiative that led to all licences for such testing being withdrawn). In Europe a complete ban on the testing of cosmetic products was imposed by the European cosmetic laws in September 2004.

Anti-ageing is certainly to be taken seriously. As more is learned about the process of cell ageing, so this knowledge can be applied to products designed to minimise the consequences. Whilst we may not be able literally to turn the clock back (yet), we can minimise the impact of normal cellular ageing and to 'make the best of what you have'. The importance of slowing the signs of ageing is great - think back to the days when we did not know about the damage from UV rays, and now we can prevent this by taking care not to extend our time in the sun and by using appropriate sun protection products. Free radicals are another area of recent progress, anti-oxidants are beneficial here too, AHAs have been in use for many years in skincare products. The skill of the cosmetic company is in getting the science to work in a consumer-friendly product rather than in theory and making sure the claims made for the product can be supported and are clearly explained for the user.

Substances which can help the body eliminate or fight the effects of free radicals or which are used to prevent oxidation (i.e. degradation caused by exposure to oxygen in the atmosphere) of other ingredients within the formulation, especially lipids. Oxidation of lipids can lead to rancidity and unpleasant smells.
Asbestos is not allowed in cosmetic products.
Asbestos is a naturally occurring mineral made up of thin fibres. Exposure to asbestos is tightly controlled due to the health risks associated with it.
Sometimes negative attention is given to cosmetic talc because of confusion over the difference between talc and asbestos. It is true that they are both hydrated magnesium silicates but cosmetic talc does not have the same fibrous structure as asbestos. The potentially harmful effects of asbestos come from its characteristic fibrous structure. Talc used in cosmetics must be fibre-free to be considered cosmetic talc .
Read more about the safety of talc.

Arsenic in make-up

Arsenic is specifically prohibited from being present in cosmetic products. It is not used as an ingredient in any cosmetic product.

Beta-hydroxy acids (BHAs)
Similar to AHAs and used for a similar purpose. The result is a shedding of dry surface cells and an improved appearance and feel to the skin.

BBP in lipstick
Butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) is prohibited from use in all cosmetics throughout Europe. This includes both products made and sold in the EU and products imported into the EU to be sold. The ban came into effect in August 2006 after concerns were expressed over the safety of BBP. The cosmetics industry fully supported proposals for the ban.

Best before
Most products are made to last a long time, although it is not always clear just how long ‘a long time’ is. If a product has a limited shelf life (less than 30 months - two and a half years) it is required to be labelled with a ‘best before’ date.
“Best before” dating is not common as most cosmetic products are formulated to ensure they have a long shelf life.

When an organism absorbs a substance at a rate greater than that at which the substance is lost. Therefore it is not simply the 'presence' or 'detection' of a substance. It is also important to realise that neither the presence of a chemical nor its bioaccumulation necessarily means that any harm is being done.

Bisphenol A
Bisphenol A is banned from use as an ingredient in cosmetic products – and has been since November 2006.
Bisphenol A is used as the starting material of coatings for the inside of packaging cans, including aerosol cans, to prevent corrosion. Although most bisphenol A is used up in making the coating material, some usually remains in the final coating agent. The prevention of corrosion is essential to protect the contents from contamination and to ensure the integrity of the can, avoiding the risk of harm to human health. Bisphenol A is also used as a building block for some plastics.
Cosmetics legislation, however, acknowledges that unavoidable traces of some substances (including those that are banned as ingredients in cosmetic products) might be found to be present in products owing to their other possible uses, such as in packaging for example. The law requires that any such traces must be taken into account by the safety assessment, and that their presence must not constitute a risk of harm to human health.
The minute traces of bisphenol A that might be detected in some cosmetic products, after migration from packaging for example, do not constitute any risk of harm to human health.

Bleach/hydrogen peroxide in toothwhiteners
Toothwhitening products will either whiten teeth through abrasion, where tiny, rough particles help to rub off discoloration, or by using a bleaching agent such as hydrogen peroxide. Where bleaching agents are used, the level is restricted to 0.1% under European cosmetics legislation.
In the past some toothwhitening products have appeared on the UK market containing higher quantities of peroxide. These are illegal so it is advisable to purchase your product from a reputable retailer or your dentist.

Botox Treatments
Botox treatments and any treatment involving injection under the skin are not cosmetic products; Botox is a prescription-only licensed medicine. Cosmetic products themselves are covered by strict cosmetic safety laws.
Licensed medicines such as Botox are controlled through theMedicines & Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency which issues a marketing authorisation for each product. Patients requiring Botox must be seen by a doctor or a suitably qualified practitioner. We would advise anyone considering a treatment of this nature to only visit a reputable clinic displaying the appropriate professional qualifications.
So-called "off-label" uses of Botox for "cosmetic procedures" does not change its classification as a medicine and the requirement for the involvement of an appropriate practitioner.  Read more – the Department of Health have issued a guidance booklet
for people considering surgical or non-surgical cosmetic procedures.

It is often wrongly claimed that Botox is a cosmetic product and any animal testing of it therefore contravenes the strict animal testing bans
for cosmetic ingredients and products. This is just not the case. These testing bans are supported and adhered to by the cosmetics industry. Companies marketing treatments such as Botox must comply with the appropriate regulatory requirements for injectable medicines.

A type of fat molecule used as an emollient in skin and hair care products. Fats which help to give a shine to the skin and hair.

CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons)
CFCs are substances no longer used in aerosols. They are man-made chemicals that were developed during the first half of the 20th century. Because of their excellent stability and non-flammable properties they were widely used as aerosol propellants. However, during the 1970s and 80s, scientists discovered a relationship between such substances and ozone depletion. By the end of 1989 the UK aerosol industry had phased out the use of CFCs in retail products and CFC use in Europe is now completely prohibited.
Find out more about deodorants and antiperspirants
Find out more about aerosols and using aerosols safely.

In recent years some cosmetic products have received a bad press owing to their “chemical content” – but all the ingredients used in cosmetics are chemicals, whether natural or man-made. Water is one of the most ‘natural’ substances on earth – but of course it is a chemical.
Everything and everyone is made up of chemicals – a chemical is any substance made up of atoms and molecules whether synthetic (man-made) or of natural origin.
In fact, nature is the biggest producer of chemicals, and one of the most successful producers of natural poisons. So, whether a cosmetic is made up of natural or man-made ingredients, it is still subject to the same strict safety assessments, as required by cosmetics legislation, to make sure it is safe to use.
See our section on chemicals in cosmetics for further information.

The science behind innovative cosmetics, such as anti-ageing moisturisers, is carried out by highly qualified scientists from many different specialist fields. To put just one new product on the shelves can take up to five years or more, with a dozen senior scientists working on it, each supported by their own team of scientists.
The rules surrounding cosmetic products are very stringent and cover the manufacture, labelling, claims and safety assessment of all cosmetic products supplied to the EU market.  It is a legal requirement that all claims made on-pack must be substantiated. This information is open to review by the regulating authorities, in the UK this is Trading Standards.
While a product is being developed, many trials will be carried out on an appropriate number of people to make sure the product does exactly what it says on the pack – but you don’t just have to take the industry’s word for it. All advertised claims made about products on the television must be pre-approved by Clearcast, who ask for a robust body of scientific evidence before they’ll give the green light. The Advertising Standards Authority (ASA) can also challenge any advertisement (broadcast, print or online) and will respond to consumer complaints by reviewing the scientific evidence before passing judgment on whether further advertising is permitted.
Find out more about the science behind cosmetics.
When reviewing products and their claims, it has been alleged that some journalists may feel under pressure to be complimentary about products that advertise in their publications. Journalists are able to say exactly which products they believe work for them and which ones do not and why – that’s how they add value for readers. With many products to review, only those which are being recommended to the readers are likely to reach the pages of the magazine.

In the UK advertised claims are subject to close scrutiny by watchdog organisations; broadcast advertisements must be pre-cleared by Clearcast and both broadcast and print advertisements are scrutinised by the Advertising Standards Authority. These organisations require robust scientific evidence to substantiate claims being made.
Clearcast is the company responsible for the pre-transmission examination and clearance of television advertisements. As part of their licensing agreements with Ofcom, broadcasters are required to clear advertising before it is broadcast and advertisements transmitted on UK terrestrial and satellite channels should be submitted to Clearcast for approval.  To find out more visit: www.clearcast.co.uk

CMR Substances
CMR substances are chemicals that have been classified as Carcinogenic, Mutagenic or Toxic to Reproduction (reprotoxic) under the European Dangerous Substances Directive, but the classification will now be carried out under the new European chemicals legislation, REACH.
The classification is based on the hazardous properties a substance might have under a “worst case” situation and does not take account of whether there is any risk associated with specific uses or exposures.
CMR substances are classified as Category 1, 2 or 3. Category 1 and 2 substances are banned from use in cosmetic products. CMR substances classified as Category 3 are banned in general, but may be used under specific circumstances provided that use has been assessed by the European Commission’s Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety(SCCS) and found safe.
This is not as strange as it may seem, and should not cause alarm. The CMR properties may only be seen under specific circumstances or exposure conditions and so it is possible to define conditions of use and exposure that do not constitute a risk of harm to human health. It must be emphasised that the classification system does not assess risk and neither does it take account of potency.
The different categories may be simply defined as:

  • Category 1: The substance is known to be carcinogenic/mutagenic/reprotoxic to man.
  • Category 2: There is a strong presumption that these substances are carcinogenic/mutagenic/reprotoxic to man.
  • Category 3: Substances, which cause concern for man owing to possible carcinogenic/mutagenic/reprotoxic effects.

There are stringent EU rules that cover the manufacture of cosmetic products. These require that all cosmetic products must be safe.

‘Cocktail effect’
A common misconception is the so-called ‘cocktail effect’ – the idea that when different chemicals combine, their total effect is greater than might be expected. It’s called the cocktail effect because of the belief that mixing alcoholic drinks can be more potent than drinking just one type of drink on its own (actually, it isn't true). The reality is that when we are exposed to a variety of chemicals at the same time, the result can be simply additive, or it may indeed be enhanced, but it might even be diminished with one substance cancelling out the effects of another. Scientists can and do investigate whether substances will have additive effects or synergistic effects or even cancel one another out when devising their formulations. These findings are taken into account when assessing the safety of a product.
Remember that even a simple cup of tea is in fact a cocktail of more than 200 chemicals, plus milk and sugar.

Might be thought of as a strong network of fibres that give skin its underlying structure and ensures the skin stays in place! A protein in the skin which provides structure; in effect, the scaffolding. Helps to make the skin feel smoother.

The term “Cosmeceutical” is not an official, legal category of product.
However “cosmeceutical” is a marketing term often used within the industry and in the press to describe cosmetic products that are intended to have actions and effects that go beyond the purely decorative, e.g. ‘performance’ cosmetics.
A product is either a cosmetic or a medicine and cannot be both at the same time. There are very clear legal definitions for a cosmetic and for a medicine – and that’s it, there is no ‘third’ category.
The manufacture of cosmetic products is highly regulated, and the EU rules clearly state the definition of a cosmetic (and medicines legislation defines what a medicine is).
As with many areas of life, there is a ‘borderline’ between cosmetics and medicines. However, a company marketing a product near the borderline between these two categories has to decide whether the product is one or the other and then comply with the appropriate legislation.
The claims made for a cosmetic product are legislated for by at least three means:

  • in the UK there is the Trades Descriptions Act covering all descriptions made regarding a product or its attributes. This Act does not allow it to be implied, directly or indirectly, that a product has characteristics that it does not have;
  • specific EU cosmetics legislation requires that claims made on the pack must be capable of substantiation;
  • there is the control of print and broadcast advertising administered by the Advertising Standards Authority and Clearcast (see www.asa.org.uk).

No one cosmetic product can be suitable for everybody, but all cosmetic products should deliver the effect claimed. Personal preference, and the fact that our bodies are all different, makes it important to have a wide choice.
The European legal regime for cosmetics and medicines is a modern, flexible system that provides a high level of consumer safety and meets the demands of a modern economy, including a competitive marketplace. The EU model of regulation for cosmetics is highly regarded internationally and has been used as a model by other countries and trading blocks when introducing their own cosmetics legislation. We expect this situation to carry on in the future.


Dermatologically tested
There is no legal definition of the term "Dermatologically tested" when applied to a cosmetic product. In general terms "Dermatologically tested" means tested on the skin. A variety of techniques are available for skin compatibility. The involvement of a doctor or dermatologist is not essential, although the protocols used may have been reviewed by a medically qualified person.

Detecting traces
Scientists have long understood that our bodies absorb substances, whether natural or man-made, from our environment. Today’s technology allows us to be able to detect and measure extraordinarily low levels of many substances in human samples.
Substances may enter our bodies through eating, breathing, drinking and direct contact. After the substance enters the body and is distributed and metabolised, the body usually gets rid of it (‘excretion’). The chemicals we are exposed to in our daily lives, including in cosmetics and foods, are so well-studied and measured that their combined effects are largely predictable and the cosmetic industry’s assertions of the safety of its products are based on robust scientific data that adheres to strict safety guidelines.
In some cases, substances remain in the body in trace amounts. However, just because something can be detected in the urine or blood, doesn’t mean it is going to cause us any harm. It is possible that all chemicals in our environment may be found in our blood, urine or tissues at some point in time.
In a similar fashion, analytical chemistry can now detect very small traces of many substances in products too. The safety assessment carried out for each cosmetic takes into account any traces to ensure they are not at a level that could possibly cause any harm.
UK and European safety regulations for cosmetics forbid the use of 1,4-dioxane as an ingredient in cosmetics; it must not be deliberately or knowingly added. However, unavoidable traces, even of banned substances, that cannot reasonably be removed during the manufacture of ingredients or the cosmetic product itself, are allowed as long as there is no risk to health. All cosmetic products must undergo a safety assessment by a qualified safety professional. Any such traces will be covered by the safety assessment to ensure the levels do not present any health risk to consumers.


The material that makes up the elastic connective fibres underneath the top layer of skin that give resilience and elasticity to the skin.

An ingredient which softens and smooths the skin.  Many emollients are oils that have an occlusive (air tight) action that provide a barrier against water loss from the skin.

Endocrine 'disruptors'
‘Endocrine disruptor’ is the term given to certain chemicals which allegedly act as, or interfere with, human hormones in the body and lead to harmful effects. These include chemicals that are alleged to interfere with sex hormones (specifically oestrogen), and are sometimes known as ‘gender-bender’chemicals. This is a broad group that includes some substances classified as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as PCBs, dioxins, DDT and chlorinated pesticides.

Epidemiology is the study of how often diseases occur in different groups of people and why. A key feature is the measurement of the incidence of disease in relation to the population at risk. The population at risk is the group of people, healthy or sick, who would be counted as cases if they had the disease being studied. In concluding the 'risk', researchers calculate the level of increased risk according to their findings. Because many factors cannot be controlled in epidemiology studies, a risk level of 2.0 or lower is usually rejected as background noise and not a true increase in risk.
Read more about making sense of mixed messages in the media.

The outer or uppermost layer of the skin.



Free radicals
Very reactive and potentially destructive molecules that have been shown to contribute to the ageing process of the skin and other tissues in the body. Free radicals can be neutralised by antioxidants.

Formaldehyde, and certain related substances which liberate formaldehyde (‘formaldehyde releasers’), are listed as approved preservatives under the Cosmetics Directive; and have been assessed by the European Commission’s independent expert scientific committee. Formaldehyde is also regulated under the Cosmetics Directive for use in nail hardeners.
Formaldehyde occurs widely in nature: it is part of our human metabolism, it occurs naturally in the air that we breathe, and plants and other animals also produce formaldehyde - it is even emitted as a by-product when certain vegetables, such as Brussels sprouts and cabbage, are cooked. Formaldehyde was first used as a biological preservative more than a century ago.

GBL (Gamma-butyrolactone)
GBL has recently (23rd December 2009) been classified as a Class C drug by the Home Office in order to control the illegal and abusive use of GBL.
However the Home Office recognises the safe use of GBL in cosmetic products. The cosmetics industry worked with the Home Office during the proposal stages of the new legislation to ensure the objectives of the new drug classification were met, i.e. legitimate uses of GBL are not affected while legislating against the illegal use and supply of the substance. GBL may be legally and legitimately used in cosmetic products.
As part of a responsible cosmetics industry, manufacturers of products containing GBL have recognised that, even though it is highly unlikely that the level of the substance present in the products would cause a drug-like effect, there may be the potential for possible product abuse. Consequently, such products also contain high levels of the ingredient denatonium benzoate which is commonly used as an alcohol denaturant to make it unsuitable for ingestion. Denatonium benzoate has been added to products containing GBL to ensure the intensely bitter taste renders the product unconsumable.
Hormones are substances produced by the body as part of the endocrine system, and they act like a ‘communication system’ for the body. There are lots of different types of hormones, and each one has its own particular function within the body. Hormones affect our growth, how we react to situations, how we metabolise sugar and how we develop sexually.
Hormones are present in the body at different concentrations – some of which are really low levels, such as in the order of ‘parts per billion’ or ‘ppb’ (1 ppb is the same as 1 second in 30 years); but you also have to consider how ‘strong’ the effect of the hormone is.
Hormones travel around the body and when they get to where they need to work, they do their job.
An example of a natural hormone present in the body is oestrogen.
Hormones (for example, progestogens, oestrogens and anti-androgens of steroidal structure) are prohibited from being present in cosmetic products, so any cosmetic product containing hormones would be illegal in the EU.

An ingredient which holds and retains moisture.

Hydrogen peroxide in toothwhiteners

Hydrogen Peroxide – safe use in hair products
Hydrogen Peroxide is a pale blue liquid that has many uses including bleaching agent, disinfectant and antiseptic. It has been safely used in the hairdressing industry to lighten hair for decades in products such as permanent oxidative colorants, hair lighteners, lightening (bleach) products, permanent waves or straighteners and colorant remover.
The use of hydrogen peroxide in cosmetic products is covered by strict safety laws. Home-use products that contain hydrogen peroxide, such as hair colorants, typically contain low concentrations of around 3% and professional (salon) products tend to contain higher levels – up to a maximum of 12%.
Since hydrogen peroxide has the ability to cause skin and eye irritations it must be handled carefully. It also readily reacts with the air and other materials which can result in explosions, so it is important to keep it in an airtight container and out of the light. At all times keep away from naked flames, from any sources.
It is extremely important for all salons, and those hair professionals with mobile businesses, to follow any instructions issued with all products and to take account of the handling, storage and reactivity information for hydrogen peroxide. It is also important to follow the manufacturers’ Health and Safety instructions, including that for suitable storage, transport and spillages.
Are you a hair professional? Read more…

‘Hypo-‘ means ‘less than’ or ‘decreased’ so, when used to describe cosmetics, the term hypoallergenic means ‘reduced potential to cause allergic reactions‘. Manufacturers will have made special efforts in the selection of ingredients and by product testing to reduce further the already low incidence of adverse reactions to cosmetic products. These products may still contain fragrance, identified in the ingredients list as ‘parfum’.


In vitro
The technique of performing experiments in a controlled environment outside of a living organism, e.g. in a test tube.

In vivo
The technique of performing experiments in a controlled environment using a living being, e.g. human volunteer testing.


A structural protein found primarily in skin, hair and nails.


Lead in lipstick
In the past, stories have circulated in the media and on the internet that lipsticks contain lead and are harmful to health. The use of lead in cosmetic products is specifically banned in the European Union by the cosmetics legislation. It must however be recognised that lead is a naturally occurring element that is found everywhere in the environment and it is possible that minute traces are carried into cosmetic products from the environment or during manufacture. These extremely low levels are taken into account as part of the safety assessment to ensure their presence does not pose a risk to human health. Given the ability of today's analytical technology to detect extremely low levels, it is to be expected that some studies claim to have found traces of lead in some products. Such reports resurface periodically often with claims that the products are dangerous.
In response the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has developed and validated a new method for the analysis of lead in lipsticks and has applied the method to the same selection of lipsticks evaluated in one of the reports. Contrary to the original report, the FDA does not believe that the lead content found is a safety concern. See the FDA website for further details.
E-mail hoax: An old internet rumour is routinely re-circulated via e-mail alleging that lipsticks contain lead and may therefore cause cancer. The message goes on to name various brands and even suggests you can test for the presence of lead by using a gold ring. Finally, the message asks you to pass the information on to friends. The allegations in the e-mail are false and the gold ring test simply does not work.

Limonene is the substance that makes lemons smell of lemon. Limonene is a common fragrance ingredient used widely in many cosmetic and homecare products. It has been claimed that limonene is a carcinogen - this is not the case.  It has not been classified as being carcinogenic either by IARC, the World Health Organisation’s International Agency for Research on Cancer or by the European legalisation on carcinogenic substances.  If any substance is classified as a known carcinogen then it is simply not allowed to be used as an ingredient in a cosmetic product.  Limonene is perfectly safe as used in cosmetic products.

Another name for fats, oils and other substances that are not miscible, or do not mix, with water. The main constituents of fats.

Microscopic hollow fat bubbles used to transport ingredients to the layers of the epidermis.


The name macrophage means 'big eater' and aptly describes these, the largest of the white blood cells which form an important part of the body's defences. Their job is to wander through the bloodstream and tissues of the body engulfing and removing unwanted debris. The debris might be dust, such as house dust, from DIY activities or even talc, pollen etc. we have breathed in to the lungs, it might be bacteria or parasites that have invaded the tissues or it might be damaged and dead cells of the body itself. Once engulfed, the macrophages kill any bacteria and break down the particles of debris and ensure the remnants are removed from the body via the faeces. They are the dustbinmen of the body, are essential for health and can even remember past encounters to help the body respond more efficiently to the same foreign material next time.

A statistical technique for combining the findings from independent studies.

Mica is the name given to a series of minerals based on silicates (substances made out of the elements silica and oxygen). Mica has unique physical properties because of its structure – it is formed, in nature, as layers that can be split into thin sheets. It can also be ground into a powder.
It is added to powdered cosmetics, such as eyeshadows, as a filler because it has excellent smoothness and so makes the eyeshadow easy to apply and also gives sparkle.
It is added to other cosmetic products - such as mascaras, lipsticks, body lotions, shampoos and bath oils - because it provides a beautiful lustre and sheen. Mica can also provide further ‘depth’ to certain pigments, and it gives a highly pearlised effect.

Mineral Oil
Mineral Oil is a liquid mixture of hydrocarbons obtained from petroleum.
Hydrocarbons are the group of compounds containing only the elements carbon and hydrogen. Hydrocarbons are generally derived from petrochemicals by a refining process, but some of them are found in the plant and animal kingdom.
Mineral oil is widely used as an emollient and vehicle in cosmetics because of its oily feel and movement on the skin. It provides products with the ability to enhance suppleness and gloss in hair-care products and, by its ability to remain on the skin surface, it can act as a lubricant to reduce flaking and to improve the skin's appearance.
Rumours frequently circulate regarding the safety of mineral oil because it is sourced from petrochemicals. But petrochemicals are the source of a whole range of substances, some of which would never be used in cosmetics and some of which are used in the food industry. In fact, the Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) of the World Health Organisation (WHO) has set values for the Acceptable Daily Intake* of those hydrocarbons likely to be ingested. It all comes down to knowing which substances are safe to use.
Only the purest grades of mineral oil will be used to make cosmetic products, and where the products are likely to come into contact with the lips (e.g. lipsticks and lipsalves) then the JECFA Acceptable Daily Intake values will be adhered to.
In the US, some products containing mineral oil require child resistant closures. In Europe, personal care products containing mineral oil have been used safely for decades and, when stored properly, are safe in the home. As an added precaution and to facilitate normal use, UK baby oils are packed with a cap which limits the amount of oil dispensed. To avoid accidental swallowing, care should be taken to ensure that all products are stored out of the reach of young children.
* Acceptable Daily Intake or ADI is that amount that you can safely consume each day for life without appreciable risk of harm.

A means of increasing the water content of the skin which helps keep it soft and smooth; a key function of face and body moisturisers for example.

Musk odours have always been very important for the fragrance industry. Musks were once only obtained from a gland in a particular species of deer which was in danger of extinction. Synthetic musks were developed by the fragrance industry as an alternative to the natural musk derived from animal sources. In fact, musk ingredients were one of the first synthetic materials used in perfumery. Musks are now synthesised in a sustainable way. Scientists have been able to identify the molecules that make the essence of the natural smell and replicate these exactly.
Due to their widespread use, synthetic musk ingredients have been the subject of extensive testing, examining both human and environmental safety. Minute traces of musks have sometimes been detected in human breast milk and this led to a full review of their safety in cosmetic products by the European Commission’s independent committee of scientific experts. This committee concluded on the basis of a full package of safety data that the synthetic musks which are used in cosmetic and personal care products are safe for use. In particular, the opinions of the committee take into account the studies relating to traces found in breast milk. Those musks typically used in cosmetics are the synthetic polycyclic musks - HHCB and AHTN, and the nitromusks - musk xylene and musk ketone.
Musks have also undergone comprehensive environmental assessments by the Commission’s experts. The polycyclic musks have been shown to have no environmental impact. However, despite many years of study and assessments no final decision has yet been made on the impact of musk xylene. It is still allowed to be used in consumer products.


Nanotechnology and Nanomaterials
Nanotechnology is an exciting and dynamic area of science that offers potential benefits for the future in many revolutionary ways.
The word “nano” derives from the Greek word “nanos”, which means dwarf or extremely small. Today, in science, the term “nano” is used to indicate an extremely small scale of measurement, the nano-scale, which is around a billion times smaller than a metre. 

  • A typical bacteria cell is around 1000 nanometres in size
  • The diameter of a human hair is 80,000 nanometres
  • An ant is millions of nanometres long

In general, a nanomaterial is a material with individual parts or dimensions on the nano-scale. Certain ingredients used in cosmetics can now be defined as nanomaterials. These ingredients have been safely used for many years.
A product that does not clog pores. Sometimes comedomes (blackheads and whiteheads) may form following physical blockage of pores but more often the reason is related to other factors including a person’s sebum production.
Created when pores become clogged and blocked with oil secretions and dead skin.
These are clogged pores that remain open and trap dirt.

Consumers with a known allergy to certain nuts may wish to avoid products that contain nut derived ingredients. It is a legal requirement for cosmetic products to declare their ingredients on the label. The name of each ingredient has been agreed throughout Europe to help people with allergies identify and avoid problem ingredients without the necessity to learn a number of different names for each ingredient. A list is available to download of the agreed names for some specific nuts.



Oestrogen is a potent hormone occurring naturally in the body, that has a wide range of effects in the body. For this reason both natural and synthetic oestrogens are prohibited from being present in cosmetic products, so any cosmetic product containing oestrogens would be illegal in the EU. This ban is one of many strict regulations placed on cosmetic products by the European Cosmetics Directive to ensure only safe cosmetics are available on the market.

Orders of magnitude:

  • Hormones are present in the body at different concentrations – some of which are really low levels, such as in the order of ‘parts per billion’ or ‘ppb’ (1 ppb is the same as 1 second in 30 years); but you also have to consider how ‘strong’ the effect of the hormone is.
  • Oestrogen for example is a natural hormone present in the body and is responsible for controlling sexual development in females. The “oestrogenic effect” of oestrogen itself is millions of times greater than substances often accused of being endocrine disruptors.
  • Probably the most common true artificial endocrine disruptors are the contraceptive pill and hormonal therapies, both of which are readily ingested as a lifestyle choice or for their therapeutic benefits. Even these substances are actually much less potent than naturally occurring oestrogens to which the human body is continually exposed, so they generally need to be given in high doses in order to achieve their intended effects.
  • As an example of relative strength, or potency, the UV filter benzophenone-3, which has been accused of being an endocrine disruptor, is 1.5 million times less potent in its oestrogenic effect than ethinyloestradiol which is used in oral contraceptives. Looking at this in another way, if aspirin were 1.5 million times lower in potency, you would need to consume more than thirteen times your body weight of pure aspirin at one time just to cure a headache. Clearly, that is not possible. In exactly the same way, it is not possible to be exposed to sufficient of these so-called endocrine disruptors to have any disrupting effect; they are simply too weak.
  • Many so-called ‘endocrine disruptors’ (actually endocrine mimics) are abundant in nature. We ingest them in the food we eat in concentrations many million times greater than in cosmetics and personal care products. Endocrine mimics include phytoestrogens – oestrogen-like compounds found in plants. We eat these in foods such as cabbage, soya beans and sprouts. No adverse health effects have been associated with these dietary exposures.


Palm oil
Palm oil and palm kernel oil are natural oils extracted from the fruit of the Elaeis Guineensis (palm) plant.
In 2006, the world market for palm oil and palm kernel oil was estimated to be approximately 40 million metric tons. The vast majority of natural oils and fats are used in food and for cooking. In the last few years the biofuels industry has become a major user. Palm oil and its derivatives have become important ingredients in cosmetic and personal care products due to the trend towards natural ingredients; but, in terms of global production volumes of palm oil, our use is very small.

There is increasing concern being raised about the global environmental impact of the use of palm oil as a raw material and sustainable development is a challenge involving the whole of society. In dialogue with all social groups, viable and permanent solutions must be sought. This is why the initiative “Round Table for Sustainable Palm Oil” (RSPO) aims at developing new solutions for sustainably harvesting palm oil and preventing the destruction of rain forests, especially in Indonesia. Our industry recognises its responsibility to foster sustainable business practices throughout the supply chain and welcomes the fact that such a complex topic is being discussed with all interested parties in an international dialogue among experts.

For further information please see the RSPO website:

Parabens are a class of substances widely used as preservatives in cosmetics, foods, pharmaceuticals and other household products. They keep products free from bacteria, moulds and fungi that would otherwise spoil the product and could cause real harm to the user.
The family of parabens, which are found naturally in plants and animals as well as being man-made, are approved for use as preservatives in the European Cosmetics Directive, and have been endorsed by the competent authorities of all member states. They are among the most widely used of preservatives, having been in use for more than fifty years with an excellent safety record.

Parts per billion (ppb) and parts per million (ppm)
Many substances that are considered potentially hazardous when consumed in large quantities are perfectly safe when used in the tiny amounts found within cosmetic products. What it all boils down to is dose. Scientists use units, such as parts per billion and parts per million, when measuring tiny amounts. 1,000 parts per billion is the same as one part per million and both equate to approximately one bucketful in 80,000 baths; or a part per billion is equivalent to one second in 30 years.

The phthalates make up a family of substances each with its own, unique, spectrum of properties, united only because they each have a similar chemical group somewhere in the molecular structure. Some phthalates will possess useful properties: some phthalates possess undersirable properties. (In the same way, fungi as a family include both nutritious mushrooms and poisonous toadstools.) It is therefore quite wrong to consider all phthalates as the same: they are not.
Some, but by no means all, members of the phthalate family have been found to be reprotoxic when tested at high doses in laboratory animals. These phthalates have been banned from cosmetic products even though there was no conceivable risk to human health from the low levels used.
Some phthalates are still allowed to be used in cosmetics and it must be emphasised that these substances have no reprotoxic properties. The safety of these specific ingredients is not in dispute amongst the scientific community.
The main phthalate which may be used in cosmetics and personal care products, which includes hairsprays, in Europe is diethyl phthalate (DEP). All scientific reviews to date around the world by key scientific experts and governmental agencies have concluded that DEP is safe for use in cosmetics and personal care products under the current conditions of use. DEP has been reviewed by the European Commission’s independent scientific expert committee (the Scientific Committee on Consumer Products, SCCP), most recently in March 2007. The SCCP has positively approved the safe use of DEP in cosmetic products, and has not deemed it necessary to impose any specific warnings or restrictions for its use. In fact the SCCP, as well as confirming the safety of DEP, has acknowledged that traces of other phthalates (including those that are banned as ingredients in cosmetic products) might be found to be present in products due to their other possible uses, such as in packaging for example. The SCCP states that traces of up to 100 ppm (parts per million) total or per substance do not indicate a risk to the health of the consumer.

PPD (paraphenylenediamine) is the most widely used permanent hair dye as it is one of the few dyes that can successfully colour light or grey hair back to a dark colour. Permanent or oxidative hair colorant products involve the mixing of the ‘hair dye’ substance (e.g. PPD) with another substance called a ‘coupler’ immediately before applying to the hair. The two then react to form the required colour inside the hair itself and, because the new coloured molecules are too big to get out of the hair, the colour is ‘trapped’ or permanent until the hair grows or is naturally shed. These products tend to come in two separate containers inside the packet.
PPD is the hair dye most often associated with allergic reactions to hair colorant products. Sensitivity or allergy to PPD may develop over time, which is why an allergy alert test must be carried out each time the hair is to be coloured.
The safety of PPD has been extensively investigated over decades. The European Commission scientists’ opinion is that PPD is safe for use as a hair dye, and its use is strictly regulated. At this time, PPD cannot be replaced in hair colorants: nothing else is as effective and it is safe when used as directed.
It is often mis-reported that PPD is banned in some European countries. This is not the case.  PPD is allowed for use throughout the European Union according to the requirements of the EU legislation.
PPD is sometimes illegally found in temporary skin tattoos. The use of PPD for this purpose is not authorised by European cosmetics regulations and European Commission scientists have recommended that PPD should not be used in temporary tattoos.

Preservatives are ingredients designed to protect products, and so the consumer, against contamination by microorganisms during storage and continued use.
Product safety is the number one priority for the cosmetics industry and we therefore provide products that have been treated to prevent contamination by microorganisms. Bacteria, yeasts and moulds are always present on our skin, in the air around us and even in the water we drink. These can get into products during normal use. Contamination of products, especially those used around the eyes and on skin, can cause significant problems if the level of contamination is high. Preservatives can prevent these problems by stopping micro-organisms from multiplying in the product.
View a short film clip to see why preservatives are so important.

Propylene glycol
Propylene glycol has a long history of safe use. It is used as a humectant and skin conditioning agent in a very wide range of cosmetic, and pharmaceutical, products. Its use in such products is without risk of harm to human health [1]. It is often quoted that this is an ingredient used in antifreeze. This may or may not be true, but water too is a component of antifreeze. Neither fact is relevant to cosmetic safety, just as the corrosive nature of acetic acid is not relevant in its use as the food ‘vinegar’. In fact this claim about propylene glycol is often confused with ethylene glycol, which is the main constituent of common anti-freeze mixtures for motor cars.


Retinol is the alcohol form of vitamin A used in some skin care products to boost cell renewal.  It is related to vitamin A.

Retinoids is the general term covering all forms of vitamin A.  The acid (retinoic acid or vitamin A acid) is prohibited from cosmetic products under the EU rules.  Other forms of vitamin A (retinol and retinyl esters such as retinyl palmitate and retinyl acetate) are safely used in skin care products to boost skin cell renewal.

Retinyl esters
Retinyl esters such as retinyl palmatate and retinyl acetate are used in some skin care products to boost skin renewal.  They are related to vitamin A.

Shelf life

Siloxanes, also known as silicones, are synthetic materials with many uses and are found in a variety of consumer products.
The basic structure is common to all siloxanes: a backbone of silicon and oxygen with molecules of carbon and hydrogen attached, all very common elements found in nature.

Siloxanes have been extensively studied and safely used for decades, and are commonly found in cosmetics and personal care products because of the excellent conditioning they impart to both skin and hair. They may be found in antiperspirants, sunscreens, shampoos, conditioners, moisturisers and lotions. They provide important product performance benefits such as facilitating a smooth texture and an even application. Studies have also shown siloxanes to be

Sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) and sodium laureth sulphate (SLES) are surfactants (“surface – active agent”: a substance, like a detergent, which enables a liquid to foam), which are used in many  cosmetic products for its cleansing and emulsifying properties.
An old internet rumour is routinely re-circulated, and is often perpetuated in media articles, alleging that SLS can cause irritation and may even cause cancer.
Safety is the number one priority for our industry. All cosmetic products are subject to a rigorous safety assessment before being sold.
The safety of SLS has not been questioned by the European Commission, nor its expert advisory committee (the Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety, or SCCS), nor by any of the member states.
The safety and toxicity of this ingredient was reviewed in 1983 by the Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel of the USA. They concluded that SLS was safe for use in cosmetic products. This conclusion was re-confirmed by the CIR in 2002, after an additional 250 scientific research studies were considered.
Although prolonged contact with high concentrations may cause irritation, this is not seen at the low concentrations of SLS used in cosmetics and personal care products, such as shampoos and toothpastes; which have a long history of in-use safety.
SLS has an excellent safety record and has never been found to be carcinogenic even though it has been investigated many times around the world. It is widely used because of its good cleansing properties and because it combines safety with efficacy. Consumers may continue to use and enjoy their cosmetic and personal care products with confidence.
Sodium laureth sulphate (SLES) is also is used in many cosmetic products for its surfactant properties. This widely used cleansing agent is perfectly safe for use on the skin; it is therefore not surprising that other industries would choose to use this safe, effective and biodegradable cleanser too.

Skin Lightening Products
The colour of the skin is determined by a person’s genetic make-up, and it involves the pigment melanin. Melanin is made by special cells called melanocytes which can be found in certain layers of the skin. Melanin production is a complex process. There are two main types of melanin; that which is brown and black in colour and that which is yellow and red. The amount of melanin produced, the type of melanin formed and how it is distributed throughout the skin determines the skin’s colour. Melanin is also the pigment responsible for the colour of hair.
Some people like to lighten their natural complexion for aesthetic preferences.
Topical skin lightening or whitening products are legally classed as cosmetic products in Europe.

Usually a liquid used to dissolve another substance. Water is a common solvent.

Sun Protection Factor (SPF)
Sunlight is made up of visible light, infra-red light and UV (ultra violet) rays.
The Sun Protection Factor given as a number on the front of a sunscreen product is an indication of the amount of protection a product provides against sunburn, which is mainly caused by UVB rays. The SPF number is an industry initiative that has standardised the way a product’s UVB protection is indicated throughout Europe and much of the rest of the world.
The higher the SPF factor the higher the protection and SPF 15 is a recommended minimum.
Sun protection products
It is recommended that you use sun protection products as part of a package of protective measures when you are in the sun and that these products should have both UVB (indicated by the SPF number and a minimum SPF 15 is recommended) and UVA protection (the UVA protection that a sunscreen provides will be evident on the label). Never use sun protection products in order to spend longer in the sun.
Further information about damage from UV light and ways to protect yourself in the sun can be found on these websites:

'Surface active agents' are used in cosmetic products to allow incompatible substances, such as oil and water, to mix together within a product or to dissolve one another.
Surfactants have many functions including: cleaning agents to dissolve dirt; suspending agents to keep solid particles from separating out of a liquid product; boosting foam; and as emulsifiers, enabling oil and water to mix.


Talc, or talcum, is a naturally occurring mineral; it is one of the hydrated magnesium silicates. Cosmetic talc, which has been safely used for over 75 years, is not the same as industrial talc. Cosmetic talc is prepared by milling talc from mines specifically selected for the high quality and purity of the talc seams. In addition, the mined talc is repeatedly checked for purity before being classified as cosmetic grade.
There is no causal link, either theoretical or actual, between cosmetic talc and cancer, although these unjustified claims are the subject of a frequently circulated Internet rumour.

The laws covering the manufacture of cosmetic products do allow for the presence of unavoidable traces, even of banned substances, that cannot reasonably be removed during the manufacture of ingredients or the cosmetic product itself, provided they do not cause any harm to the consumer. All products are thoroughly assessed by a qualified safety professional. These assessments take into account any traces of substances, however tiny, so that the products pose no risk to the health of adults or children.
See also: detecting traces.

Triclosan is an ingredient used in cosmetic and toiletry products because of its excellent antibacterial qualities. It is proven to help enhance oral hygiene through its use in toothpastes and mouthwashes and personal hygiene through its use in soaps, hand washing liquids and deodorants. It effectively inhibits the growth of bacteria. This helps to prevent the spread of germs, reduces the risk of infections, maintains the oral cavity in good condition and controls body malodour.
Triclosan is approved for use as a preservative in all cosmetics (including toothpastes and mouthwashes) by the laws which control the safety of cosmetics. A full safety file has been assessed by the independent expert committee of the European Commission (the Scientific Committee for Consumer Safety, SCCS) and the SCCS has issued two separate opinions (2009 and 2011) supporting the use of triclosan as a safe and effective ingredient in cosmetic products.
In fact, triclosan has been studied more extensively than many other substances, natural or man-made, in use today. Those studies cover the safety of triclosan to man (including any possible risk of harm to babies and infants both before, i.e. during pregnancy, and after, i.e. when breastfeeding, birth), animals and the environment, including questions about the risk of antimicrobial resistance.
In the past, however, scientific research into triclosan has been taken out of context, which has put its safe use into question. One such experiment artificially created a situation (not replicated in normal consumer use) where large quantities of triclosan and chlorine were combined and found to react together to create small amounts of chloroform. From this it was suggested that the chlorine in tap water might react with triclosan to produce chloroform. However chemical experts have commented this type of scenario can be ruled out, and there is no risk to human health.
UV absorber
A substance that protects the cosmetic product from the effects of UV-light.

UV filter
A substance that filters certain UV rays in order to protect the skin or the hair from harmful effects of UVA and UVB rays. All UV filters allowed for use in cosmetic products in the EU are listed on the positive list of UV filters (Annex VII of the Cosmetics Directive).

UV rays
Most of the damage from the sun comes from UV (ultra violet) rays . UV light is split into UVA, UVB and UVC rays. UVC rays do not normally affect the skin as they are completely filtered out by the atmosphere before they reach us. UVB penetrates into the outer layer of the skin and damages the cells causing the skin to become inflamed or sunburnt. UVA rays penetrate more deeply causing direct damage to supporting tissues leading to ageing effects. Both types of rays are attributed to causing skin cancers of various types.

Vitamin A
Vitamin A is available in several forms and one, the acid, is specifically prohibited from use in cosmetics under the EU rules because of its side-effects at high doses.  Other forms of vitamin A (retinol and retinyl esters such as retinyl palmitate and retinyl acetate) are safely used in skin care products to boost skin cell renewal.

Vitamin D
Sunlight acts on the skin to produce vitamin D. Vitamin D is essential for good health, in particular to maintain healthy bones.
The issue of vitamin D in health is complicated. However, most people are likely to have sufficient levels of vitamin D, some of which will have come from normal exposure to the sun in their everyday lives. It is possible to get all the vitamin D you need by eating a balanced diet and acting sensibly in the sun whilst using sunscreens.
When exposed to the sun it is still important to behave sensibly, and protect the skin from the harmful effects of UV rays, including the appropriate use of sunscreens. Cancer Research UK has a site called SunSmart which gives lots of helpful information.
Certain foods are a source of vitamin D (it is found in eggs, oily fish, fish liver oils and some fortified cereals) - but this might not suit everyone's diet. Vitamin D can also be obtained from dietary supplements.
Vitamin D exists in different forms. In Europe vitamin D is not used as an ingredient in cosmetic products as the main forms are not permitted under EU rules.
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